A venogram is a minimally invasive procedure that is used in cases of venous obstruction. It is a procedure that Dr. Tapper performs when your deep veins are blocked by fresh clot or old chronic clot and scar tissue. A small catheter is inserted into a vein and then contrast (“dye”) is injected to map the veins and reveal the extent of the blockage. Dr. Tapper then works to clear the obstruction with sophisticated catheters, wires, balloons, and stents. During the procedure patients are lightly sedated, vital signs are closely monitored, and supplemental oxygen is given. Depending on the extent of the procedure, patients either go home that day or spend a night in the hospital for observation. 


An arteriogram or angiogram is a minimally invasive procedure that Dr. Tapper performs to identify and treat obstruction of your arteries.  A small catheter is placed in an artery and contrast (“dye”) is injected. The result is a roadmap that Dr. Tapper uses to guide sophisticated wires, catheters, balloons, atherectomy devices, and stents into your blocked arteries. He has a variety of techniques and tools that he uses to open your blocked arteries and restore vital blood flow. During the procedure you will be lightly sedated, your vital signs will be closely monitored, and will be breathing some extra oxygen. Most patients can go home four hours after the procedure. 

Too many patients get unnecessary or even harmful stent or atherectomy procedures in their legs. Be careful! Do not be afraid to get a second opinion. Dr. Tapper has the experience and the integrity to put your interest first.


As a Board Certified vascular surgeon, Dr. Tapper performs the full complement of major open vascular operations. The three most common operations are carotid endarterectomy, AAA repair, and leg bypass. If you need vascular surgery you should insist on a consultation with Dr. Tapper. His track record with carotid endarterectomy is unparalleled. Since he was the first surgeon on the Treasure Coast to perform endovascular repair of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (EVAR), his experience with EVAR is unmatched. And when it comes to leg bypass, his approach results in the highest limb preservation rate and lowest amputation rate in our region.   

Do not be afraid to get a second opinion. Board certification in Vascular Surgery is a meaningful designation of specialized training.  Did you know that there are only 100 new vascular surgeons trained each year in the U.S.? Before you have surgery or any other vascular procedure, make sure you ask all the right questions. You can trust that Dr. Tapper has the skill and experience to recommend only what is in your best interest.